Hardy DE. To the south of Guannan, Yuanjiang and Rulin is the annual distribution zone. Sanidad. Drew RAI, Courtice AC, Teakle DS. 1951. Drew RAI. Foote RH, Blanc FL. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. 36 pp. The posterior spiracles are located in the dorsal third of the segment as viewed from the rear of the larva. Damage associated with this pest is caused by larval feeding in the fruit pulp, which can result in losses of up to 100% if left uncontrolled. Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is a key pest of fruit crops in many tropical, subtropical and mild temperate areas worldwide. When it has been detected in Florida, California, and Texas, especially in recent years, each infestation necessitated intensive and massive eradication and detection procedures so that the pest did not become established. Figure 15. 1969. 1963. Figure 12. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 12: 1-161. In this region, the Oriental fruit fly completed 4–5 generations per year, and infested the local vegetables and fruits all the year around. The Mexican fruit fly is found in Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua. Host range: Queensland fruit fly infests both indigenous and introduced fruits. Synonymization of key pest species within the. Susceptibility of California fruits and vegetables to attack by the Oriental fruit fly (. For export markets, B. tryoni is now deemed endemic to all eastern Australian states, except for the Greater Sunraysia Pest-Free Area. Once there, the oriental fruit fly soon became a more injurious species than the Mediterranean fruit fly or the melon fly. Phillips VT. 1946. Find the Z-score that corresponds to each life span. Injury to fruit, as with other members of this genus of fruit flies, occurs through oviposition punctures and subsequent larval development. Businesses that produce meals, like catering companies, hotels, and nursing facilities, often have to deal with these pests. The ovipositor is very slender and sharply pointed. Working off-campus? ... fruit fly complex which includes more than 68 species that are very closely related and difficult to identify. It was introduced into the Hawaiian Islands about 1945, apparently by U.S. military troops returning to the islands. Goergen G, Vayssières J-F, Gnanvossou D, Tindo M. 2011. (a) Median: 0.785 (b) … Fruit flies also may breed and develop in drains, garbage disposals, trash cans, and mop buckets. Steiner traps baited with a lure and toxicant are also used to monitor the presence and control of the flies. In this study, the diversity and distribution of fruit fly parasitoids and their reservoir plants along a latitudinal gradient in three zones of mango production in Senegal were reported. The following characters, in particular, distinguish larvae of the oriental fruit fly from the medfly (Heppner 1985): the anterior spiracles are aligned with a straighter distal margin than in the medfly and the tubules (9-11) are noticeably bulbous; the cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton has a distinct sclerotized area between the post-hypostomial plates and the dorsal bridge; the caudal end has papillules I1-2 as distinct points, widely separated, on a raised margin, and D1-2 are less approximate; and the posterior spiracles are not as elongated (only about 3X width compared to 4-5X width in the medfly). Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. 1979. Impact of introduction of. The trap experiments located in 12 counties of Yunnan indicated that, the geographical distribution of Oriental fruit fly there could be plotted as three distribution zones. Four major oriental fruit fly infestations in California were eradicated between 1960 and 1997. Berg GH. Determine whether any of these life spans are unusual. Distribution data from areas outside Africa were obtained Figure 11. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. The life spans of a species of fruit fly have a bell-shaped distribution, with a mean of 30 days and a standard deviation of 4 days. The color of the fly is very variable, but there are prominant yellow and dark brown to black markings on the thorax. The mature larva emerges from the fruit, drops to the ground, and forms a tan to dark brown puparium. Liquido NJ. The genus Bactrocera includes nearly 600 species, Ovipositor of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Other species in the genus Anastrepha including the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.. Mexican fruit fly, A. ludens has a much longer ovipositor (3.35 - 4.7 mm long in A. ludens). 3X width) oval openings on each kidney-shaped spiracular plate, with dorsal and ventral spiracles angled to the caudal end center, and the median spiracle relatively straight; interspiracular processes (hairs) numerous, at four sites on each plate, latero-distal to spiracles, and the tips usually bifurcate; anal lobes entire and prominent. Internac. South Brisbane, Australia. 1985. Pictorial Key to Fruit Fly Larvae of the Family Tephritidae. Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs by inserting her ovipositor in … Taxonomy and distribution of the oriental fruit fly and related species (Tephritidae, Diptera). Fruit flies will move in anywhere that there is an easy food source. 1983. The mature larva emerges from the fruit, drops to the ground, and forms a tan to dark brown puparium about 4.9 mm in length. Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. Egg: The white, elongate and elliptical egg measures about 1.17 x 0.21 mm and has a chorion without sculpturing. The European cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L.) is the most serious pest of cherries. Adult: The common fruit fly is normally a yellow brown (tan) color, and is only about 3 mm in length and 2 mm in width (Manning 1999, Patterson, et al 1943). 1991. Wing band color is pale yellow in A. ludens and dark brown in A. Oecologia (Berlin) 60: 279-284. European cherry fruit fly is the most serious pest of cherries in Europe. This pest has been intercepted on many occasions at ports of entry on the U.S. mainland. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15: 1399-1405. There are traps which can be used to detect the presence of fruit fly. Other synonyms include Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock (Schutze et al. Eggs of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton of larva. (2016). 1989. In an investigation of fruit-fly behavior, a covered choice chamber is used to test whether the spatial distribution of flies is affected by the presence of a substance placed at one end of the chamber. Life Spans of Fruit Flies The life spans of a species of fruit fly have a bell-shaped distribution, with a mean of 33 days and a standard deviation of 4 days. Steiner trap used to monitor and control the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Diptera: Tephritidae. Identification of Fruit Fly Larvae Frequently Intercepted at Ports of Entry of the United States. (a) The life spans of three randomly selected fruit flies are 33 days, 29 days, and 42 days. Oriental Fruit Fly Information. When the fruit fly exclusion zone was withdrawn in Victoria and New South Wales in 2013, B. tryoni became endemic once again in this area and the national distribution of B. tryoni changed. Pupation occurs in the soil. Studies in Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae). Distribution: Queensland fruit fly is a native pest occurring throughout eastern Australia. The extensive damage caused by the oriental fruit fly in areas similar to Florida indicates that this species could rapidly become a very serious pest of citrus and other fruit and vegetables if it became established in Florida. Development from egg to adult under summer conditions requires about 16 days. Mexican fruit fly adults have been trapped a number of times in California and several infestations have been eradicated from the state. Adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). 2007): Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China (southern), Hong Kong, India (numerous states), Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Ogasawara Islands, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Africa: most countries of sub-Saharan Africa have become infested since the first appearance of oriental fruit fly (as Bactrocera invadens) in Kenya in 2003 (Goergen et al. Caudal end of larva. Figure 7. suspensa. Schutze MK, Aketarawong N, Amornsak W, Armstrong KF, Augustinos AA, Barr N, Bo W, Bourtzis K, Boykin LM, Cáceres C, Cameron SL, Chapman TA, Chinvinijkul S, Chomic A, De Meyer M, Drosopoulou E, Englezou A, Ekesi S, Gariou-Papalexiou A, Geib SM, Hailstones D, Hasanuzzaman M, Haymer D, Hee AKW, Hendrichs J, Jessup A, Ji Q, Khamis FM, Krosch MN, Leblanc L, Mahmood K, Malacrida AR, Mavragani-Tsipidou P, Mwatawala M, Nishida R, Ono H, Reyes J, Rubinoff D, San Jose M, Shelly TE, Srikachar S, Tan KH, Thanaphum S, Haq I, Vijaysegaran S, Wee SL, Yesmin F, Zacharopoulou A, Clarke R. 2015. Mexican fruit fly is one of the world's most destructive invasive pests, attacking more than 40 different kinds of fruits and vegetables. However, avocado, mango and papaya are the most commonly attacked. Figure 5. Relationship of sexual maturation rate to response of Oriental fruit fly strains (Diptera: Tephritidae) to methyl eugenol. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. Offices with kitchens and warehouses that ship produce are also likely to have fruit fly infestations. In Hawaii, larvae were found in more than 125 kinds of hosts. The external part of the anterior respiratory organs, the spiracles, located one on each side of the pointed or head end of the larva, has an exaggerated and deflexed lobe at each side and bears many small tubercles. The adult flies congregate on foliage and fruit to feed on bacterial colonies and later to mate. Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton with large convex, sharply pointed mouth hook each side, each hook about 2X hypostome length; hypostomium with prominent, semi-rounded subyhypostomium; post-hypostomial plates curved gradually to dorsal bridge, fused with sclerotized rays of central area of dorsal wing plate but with a semi-articulated area between; parastomium prominent; dorsal wing plate with posterior ray split; dorsal bridge anterior with a sclerotized point; pharyngeal plate about 25% longer than dorsal wing plate, with median area below dorsal bridge relatively unsclerotized, and a prominent hood. The fly attacks ripening fruit, causing it to rot and fall off the tree. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. Unlimited viewing of the article/chapter PDF and any associated supplements and figures. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a very destructive pest of fruit in areas where it occurs. 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