This document will become Chapter 1 of the overall design guide when the remaining chapters are completed. These all can be used to assign a particular user or device to a specific VLAN. It they marked all traffic to DSCP EF they could effectively hijack network resources reserved for real time applications (such as VoIP), thereby ruining the VoIP service quality throughout the enterprise. By ensuring that traffic entering the network is correctly classified and marked, it is only necessary to provide the appropriate queuing within the remainder of the campus (see Figure 25). When looking at the overall campus design, the access switch provides the majority of these access-layer services and is a key element in enabling multiple campus services. The design guidelines described there are intended to meet the needs of the FCAPS model as well as providing a more comprehensive end-to-end campus security. They contain important data and, when compromised, can also serve as a launching points for other attacks against the internal network. •Hardware DPI (NBAR)—Provides the ability to detect undesirable application traffic flows at the network access layer and allow for selected control (drop or police) of undesirable traffic. As the port security example illustrates, there are many cases where traditional security features and quality-of-service (QoS) features can and should be used to both address security and QoS requirements, but also to improve the availability of the campus infrastructure as a whole. PVST+, Rapid PVST+, EIGRP, OSPF, DTP, PAgP/LACP, UDLD, FlexLink, Portfast, UplinkFast, BackboneFast, LoopGuard, BPDUGuard, Port Security, RootGuard. While the use of the AutoSecure feature can greatly ease the process of protecting all the devices in the network, it is recommended that a network security policy be developed and that a regular audit process be implemented to ensure the compliance of all network devices. Most importantly, mapping all three elements—physical connectivity, logical control plane, and data flows—together in the same hierarchical model is necessary to produce an optimal network implementation. With the introduction of the virtual switch concept, the distribution switch pair can now be configured to run as a single logical switch as shown in Figure 9. The purpose of both CDP and LLDP is to ease the operational and configuration challenges associated with moving devices. Many of the campus security features have already been discussed in some form in the various preceding sections. ), Yes, per port ACL's and PVLAN isolation capabilities allow for segmentation of traffic down to the device level. There are three layers of the data center design: Multitier HTTP-based applications supporting web, application, and database tiers of servers dominate the multitier data center model. As such it provides a security, QoS, and policy trust boundary. •Next generation applications are driving higher capacity requirements. GOLD also provides the capability to run (or schedule) potentially intrusive on-demand diagnostics. It is becoming increasing difficult to find a change window—or a time when the network can be shut down for maintenance with the globalization of business, the desire for always-on communications and the movement from mainframe-based monolithic application systems to web- and Unified Communications-based systems. In campus design we may have the multiple building and we have to deal with layer-3 and layer-2 switching in access and distribution to build a switching topology. The order or manner in which all of these things are tied together to form a cohesive whole is determined by the use of a baseline set of design principles which, when applied correctly, provide for a solid foundation and a framework in which the upper layer services can be efficiently deployed. Figure 4 Use of Campus Core Layer to Reduce Network Scaling Complexity. As with hierarchy and modularity, resiliency is a basic principle that is made real through the use of many related features and design choices. The campus network generally provides the highest capacity and the lowest latency of any portion of the enterprise network. As a Layer-2 virtualization technique, VLANs are bound by the rules of Layer-2 network design. The coordinated use of multiple features and the use of features to serve multiple purposes are aspects of resilient design. While WLAN environments support the transmission of multicast traffic they may not meet the needs of high volume loss sensitive multicast applications (Note: 802.11 unicast traffic uses acknowledged transmissions to achieve a similar reliability for unicast traffic to wired networks even with the inherent higher BER. and got confused. Figure 11 illustrates an extreme case in which an end-to-end, Layer-2 topology is being migrated from a fully redundant spanning tree-based topology to an end-to-end virtual switch-based network. Core devices are most reliable when they can accommodate failures by rerouting traffic and can respond quickly to changes in the network topology. By implementing an explicit rule that enforces that expected behavior, the network design achieves a higher degree of overall resiliency by preventing all of the potential problems that could happen if thousands of MAC addresses suddenly appeared on an edge port. © 2021 Pearson Education, Cisco Press. The core layer helps in scalability during future growth. Having a summarized view of the connectivity and control plane within the access-distribution block allows the core and the remainder of the network to be managed and changed without constantly considering the specific internal details of the access-distribution block. The detailed design guidance for the routed access distribution block design can be found in the campus section of the CCO SRND site Increases in the volume of application traffic—or the detection of new application traffic patterns that might require network upgrade or design changes—can be tracked via NetFlow. Every access switch represents a single point of failure for all of the attached devices. The ability for devices to connect and for applications to function is dependent on the availability of the campus. While each of these layers has specific service and feature requirements, it is the network topology control plane design choices—such as routing and spanning tree protocols—that are central to determining how the distribution block glues together and fits within the overall architecture. As both the data center and the campus environments have evolved, the designs and system requirements have become more specialized and divergent. In the looped design, one-to-many VLANs are configured to span multiple access switches. Examples of functions recommended to be located in a services block include: •Unified Communications services (Cisco Unified Communications Manager, gateways, MTP, and the like). The campus core helps make scaling the network easier when using Cisco switches with the following properties: The core layer is the backbone for campus connectivity and optionally the aggregation point for the other layers and modules in the enterprise campus architecture. Enhancements to WLAN QoS as defined by the 802.11e standards provide the ability for QoS-enabled stations to have the ability to request specific transmission parameters (data rate, jitter, etc.) See Figure 17. The presence of the trust boundary in the campus QoS design provides the foundation for the overall architecture. The introduction of 802.1X as an authentication method for users and devices is a part of the next phase of dynamic access provisioning. Specifically, in the campus network, the designs generally adhere to the access, distribution, and core layers discussed in earlier sections. GOLD provides a framework in which ongoing/runtime system health monitoring diagnostics can be configured to provide continual status checks for the switches in the network (such as active in-band pings that test the correct operation of the forwarding plane). Second, what are the key modules or building blocks and how do they relate to each other and work in the overall hierarchy? In a network of three switches connected in serial, with no redundancy, the network will break if any one of the three switches breaks. All rights reserved. In addition to defining when applications will fail, they also define what is disruptive to the employees and users of the network, what events will disrupt their ability to conduct business, and what events signify a failure of the network. Looking at how this set of access services evolved and is continuing to evolve, it is useful to understand how the nature of the access layer is changing. Systems must also be designed to resist failure under unusual or abnormal conditions. The campus network architecture is based on the use of two basic blocks or modules that are connected together via the core of the network: The following sections introduce the underlying campus building blocks. Detailed best practices IPv6 as a non-stop system is dependent on the number of itinerant guest users have! 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