Jesse H. Ausubel, Iddo K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner (2013) – Peak Farmland and the Prospect for Land Sparing. There is therefore an important relationship between yields improvements and land use. What caused this significant drive in yield improvements? The wheat yield of three tons and rice yield of two tons combine for five tons of grain per hectare, helping to feed India's 1.1 billion people. 142. Add country This progress, however, is not equal across all regions. The units by which the yield of a crop is usually measured today are kilograms per hectare or bushels per acre. Online here.The original sources given by my source are Evenson and Gollin 2003 and FAO 2006a. Africa 67. DataBank Microdata Data Catalog. Figure 1 illustrates average wheat yield per hectare for each typical farm. However, a failure to increase agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries has led to large increases in land used for cereal production. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. [1] The statistics that are collected on agricultural products relate to more than 100 individual crop products. The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year in which the bulk of the harvest took place. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. 1. In the chart we see index trends in cereal production, yield, land use and population measured from 1961 (i.e. Am accessible overview of the history of corn can be found here. Data on cereal yield may be affected by a variety of reporting and timing differences. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013).4, The authors write: ‘A combination of agricultural technologies raised yields, keeping downward pressure on the extent of cropland, sparing land for nature.Countering the global rise of population and affluence by parents and workers, consumers and farmers restrained the expansion of arable land by changing tastes and lifting yields. 4.5. Bar chart showing country rankings - Wheat - Yield in MT/HA. In many industrialized countries, particularly in the United States and Canada, farmers commonly deliver their newly harvested grain to a grain elevator or a storage facility that consolidates the crops of many farmers. Expansion of cereal production has followed very different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Sugarcane is a cash crop, but it is also used as livestock fodder. Data on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and coffee.'5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00561.x. Similarly to cereal yields, productivity gains in sugar beet and potatoes have been most impressive over the latter half of the 20th century. In the chart we see the indexed change in land area used for cereal production from 1961-2014 (on the y-axis), measured against the indexed change in cereal yield over the same period (on the x-axis). Download to Excel (xls) Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. 6.1. The initial period of yield gains in the late 1930s-early 1940s coincides with the transition period of farmers from open-pollinated varieties to hybrids. 4.5-2.4. Colombia's crop yield for soybeans was forecasted to reach 3.58 metric tons per hectare by 2028. All simulated crop yields are presented at standard moisture content, i.e. 3.9. The data collected from official national sources through the questionnaire are supplemented with information from official secondary data sources. Asia A bit of both. Factors such as the green revolution, has led to impressive progress in increasing cereals yields over the last few decades. 9. East Asia. Information is collected for the area under cultivation (expressed in 1 000 hectares), the quantity harvested (expressed in 1 000 tonnes) and the yield (expressed in tonnes per hectare). The FAO report yield values as the national average for any given year; this is calculated by diving total crop output (in kilograms or tonnes) by the area of land used to grow a given crop (in hectares). There are likely to be certain regional and seasonal differences in yield within a given country, however, reported average yields still provide a useful indication of changes in productivity over time and geographical region. Vol.40 no.1 Santiago Apr. 9.5. Production depends on the nature of the soil, the amount of rainfall, irrigation, quality of seeds, and the techniques applied to promote growth. 48. If we compare this increase to that of total population (which increased only 136 percent over the same period), we see that global cereal production has increased at a much faster rate than that of population. As we see, average corn yields in the United States remained relatively flat throughout the 1800s until the 1930s. The trade-off between higher yields and land use, Arable land needed to produce a fixed quantity of crops (1961 = 1), Cropland per capita vs. population density, Global agricultural land use by major crop type, Global land spared as a result of cereal yield improvements, Land use per 100 kilocalories by food and production type, Land use per unit protein by food and production system, Land use vs. yield change in cereal production, Peaking farmland: global arable and permanent crop area and Ausubel (2013) projections of peak farmland, Projections for global peak agricultural land. … The cultivation of cereals varies widely in different countries and depends partly upon the development of the economy. Land use per 100 kilocalories by food and production type; Land use per unit protein by food and production system; Land use vs. yield change in cereal production; Organic agricultural area; Peaking farmland: global arable and permanent crop area and Ausubel (2013) projections of peak farmland; Projections for global peak agricultural land Statistical Concept and Methodology: A cereal is a grass cultivated for the edible components of their grain, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Livestock production per hectare varies significantly from country to country and is lowest in the tropics. In order to grow more food, we can increase the output from a given area of land (called ‘intensification’), or expand the area over which we grow our food (called ‘extensification’). Germany produces about 8,050 kilograms of cereal per hectare. The FAO tries to impose standard definitions and reporting methods, but complete consistency across countries and over time is not possible. 8.8. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded, but are obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. TABLE 5: Applied tariffs on ethanol in selected countries 70% less land was needed. In 2014, we used 16% more land for cereal production than we did in 1961 (approximately equivalent to double the area of Germany). Oceania Share of global habitable land needed for agriculture if everyone had the diet of... Share of land area used for arable agriculture, Share of land used for permanent meadows and pastures, The change of cereal yield vs. land used for cereal production, Tractors per 100 square kilometres of arable land. We will always indicate the original source of the data in our documentation, so you should always check the license of any such third-party data before use and redistribution. Actual yields This has inevitably allowed us to ‘spare’ land we would have otherwise had to convert for cereal production. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. Today, the world can produce almost three-times as much cereal from a given area of land as it did in 1961. | 92. India. In Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, al… Most of a crop harvested near the end of a year will be used in the following year. Most European, American (both North and Latin American), Asian and Pacific countries have seen a much larger increase in cereal yields relative to area used for production. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. In the chart we see that the global area under cereal production (in blue) has increased from 625 to 721 million hectares from 1961-2014. 7. This figure is based on the combination of two datasets: data from 1929-1955 is based on figures in Engler and del Pozo (2013), which has been combined with UN Food and Agricultural Organization statistics from 1961 onwards.2. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; cereal crops therefore can also be called staple crops Cereals production includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. 6. 99. 1.9. There are a number of factors which are likely to have contributed to sustained yield gains: fertilizer application, irrigation, increased soil tillage, and improved farming practices. China (People's Republic of), Soybean, 2019: 1.9 Tonnes/hectare China (People's Republic of), Rice, 2019: 4.9 Tonnes/hectare China (People's Republic of), Wheat, 2019: 5.6 Tonnes/hectare China (People's Republic of), Maize, 2019: 6.3 Tonnes/hectare. Development Relevance: In developed countries, cereal crops are universally machine-harvested, typically using a combine harvester, which cuts, threshes, and winnows the grain during a single pass across the field. In this visualisation, you can select/deselect which crops you wish to see and compare, and you can also view these trends across any country or region using the “change country” wheel. How have crop yields changed over the long-term? Online here. | 59. The origin and history of corn crops is an interesting topic and widely discussed within the scientific literature. Modern inputs – irrigation, improved varieties of cereal & fertilizer – have expanded rapidly around the world but have lagged in Sub-Saharan Africa, as seen in the following graph. The noticeable shrinkage in the extent of cropland as a function of the Crop Production index since 1990 provides encouragement that farmers will continue sparing land.’. Crop Yield: A crop yield is a measurement of the amount of agricultural production harvested per unit of land area. The data are collected by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) through annual questionnaires. 12. 1.0. excl. Long-term cereal yields in the United Kingdom were some 500 kg/ha in Medieval times, jumping to 2000 kg/ha in the Industrial Revolution, and jumping again to 8000 kg/ha in the Green Revolution . Please consult our full legal disclaimer. The average cereal yield has increased by 175 percent since 1961. 111. Wheat Yields across Europe from 1850 Corn yields in the US Although there are a few exceptions–notably across Sub-Saharan Africa, the continued increase in cereal yields across the world has been the major driver of total cereal production. 178. Our data on agricultural yields across crop types and by country are much more extensive from 1960 onwards. South Asia. | Rice is grown in more than a hundred countries, with a total harvested area of approximately 158 million hectares, producing more than 700 million tons annually (470 million tons of milled rice). 134. This trade-off between land use for agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. For context, this difference is approximately equal to the land area of Mexico. Crop production systems have evolved rapidly over the past century and have resulted in significantly increased crop yields, but have also created undesirable environmental side-effects such as soil degradation and erosion, pollution from chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals and a loss of bio-diversity. 50. North America kg/ha (arable land) % p.a. | The country with the lowest value in the region is Cyprus, with a value of 2,009.10. Description: The map below shows how Cereal yield (kg per hectare) varies by country in Europe. 3.3-0.1 All above. First-wheat yields were 4% higher than the five-year average at 10t/ha, with second wheats 15% better at an average of 9.8t/ha. Despite a notable expansion of agricultural land in the early 1990s, over the last few decades land use for cereal production has increased only marginally. In the chart we have plotted average corn (maize) yields in the United States from 1866-2014, based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and UN FAO. TABLE 4: Voluntary and mandatory bioenergy targets for transport fuels in G8+5 countries. The United Kingdom harvests about 7,707 kilograms of cereal per hectare. Ciencia e investigación agraria. Washington, DC: World Bank. For … Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. | Average wheat yield for the farms in 2013 to 2017 was 65.3 bushels per acre (4.39 metric tons per hectare). The country with the lowest value in the region is Cyprus, with a value of 2,009.10. However, if global average cereal yields were to have remained at their 1961 levels, we see the amount of additional land (in blue) which we would have had to convert to arable land if we were to achieve the same levels of cereal production. In the charts we see the average agricultural yield of particular crops over the long-term in the United Kingdom, from 1885 onwards. The 2018 sunflower crop was bountiful in other countries too. 8.3. 6. Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. Latin America and the Caribbean. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. The importance of crop production is related to harvested areas, returns per hectare (yields) and quantities produced. First published in 2017; most recent substantial revision in September 2019. There are also about 56.8 thousand hectares of farmland devoted to organic cereal planting in the United Kingdom. Production data on relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Continued progress depends on maintaining agricultural research and education. Most Recent Value. Crop harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. 0.0. 0.8. excl. N.B. Since the turn of the millennium however, cereal yields in the UK have been relatively stagnant. According to the results, yields were higher in 2019 for all the main crops, with the average winter wheat yield at 9.9t/ha, which is 17% higher than in 2018 and 7% higher than the five-year average. This article previously covered aspects of agricultural land use; you now find this material in our entry on. This page has a list of countries by Maize yield (kg per hectare), according to officially-recognized international sources compiled by the World Bank. Near East/North Africa. Chile. This is an important contrast to Africa where results are more mixed. Cereal yield (kg per hectare) - Country Ranking. 131. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. This ‘spared’ land amounts to 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the area of Mexico and Europe combined. 244. 36. Central America & the Caribbean Menu. We see UK yields in sugar beet and potatoes tend to have much higher yields than cereal crops by mass (although they are likely to have a much higher percentage of water weight). 266. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. This entry can be cited as: Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. 96. 4.3. The 10 year increase in yield for this region is 28%. So some cereal crops are excluded from the data for some countries and included elsewhere, depending on their use. Note: This page was last updated on December 28, 2019, Home | About | Search | Site Map | Blog | Indicadores en Español. Overall, we see that improvements in cereal yields from the 19th century into the first half of the 20th century were relatively slow– by the 1940s, yields were typically in the range of 2-2.5 tonnes per hectare. 115. 6.0. Definition: Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. 6. Population and Development Review, Volume 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013. The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) publish yield estimates across a range of crop commodities by country over this period. 49. Cereal yield is measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land. In the 2019/20 crop year, a yield of 5.63 metric tons per hectare was expected for corn crops in Brazil , down by 1.6 percent when compared to the previous crop year. The average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare per year. World Chile ranked first for cereal yield > kg per hectare amongst Emerging markets in 2008. From 1961 to 2014, global cereal production has increased by 280 percent. Extremely approximate guideline figures of potential yields of different forms of biofuel per hectare per annum. [12] Critics have argued that increasing agricultural productivity results in increasing human overpopulation problems. 89. 1.4. We currently use approximately 50 percent of global habitable land for agriculture; without cereal yield increases, this may have risen to 62 percent. Maize yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land. 56. Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. 2013. The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. This data can be viewed for other countries and regions by selecting ‘ The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year in which the bulk of the harvest took place. The UK barley yield has exceeded that seen in 2015 and now sits at 7.0 tonnes per hectare. Thus, data on agricultural land in different climates may not be comparable. ’ on the chart.The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). | 5. Middle East This is the definition given by the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in their glossary that is online here. Most Recent Year. Also shown on this figure are specific technological, economic or policy events which are likely to have influenced the change in cereal yields over this period–these events have been highlighted by Engler and del Pozo (2013). 11. Given that demand for animal-based foods is projected to grow by 70 percent by 2050 and that pastureland accounts for two thirds of agricultural land use, boosting pasture productivity is … The country with the highest value in the region is Belgium, with a value of 9,050.70. This process of cross-breeding between open-pollinated varieties, combined with improved breed selection practices is thought to define the key turning point in US corn yields.1, In the chart we see the average yields in key cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats) in Chile from 1929-2014. values in 1961 are equal to 1.0. 3.6. China. All Countries and Economies. Most of our improvements in cereal production have arisen from improvements in yield. The shade of the country corresponds to the magnitude of the indicator. All of our charts can be embedded in any site. In 2018, the South American country's yield for this crop was estimated at 3.04 tons per hectare. This is taken from World Bank (2008) – World Development Report (2008): Agriculture for Development. For many, changes in the arable land have been minimal (or have declined). Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. For example, globally in 2014, the index value was 0.3; this means only 30% of the arable land area was needed to produce the same quantity of crops relative to 1961. The simulations were carried out for each STU within a RWS zone. Break-even yield (grain only) 8.0 6.8 7.8 6.4 5.6 7.0 6.4 Cost per tonne @ target yields* 124 128 125 128 135 120 133 Net Price (€/Tonne) 170 170 160 160 180 155 155 AID (BPS) = NOT included 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Straw (€/ha) 243 198 300 250 250 248 216 *Crop margins are underlined for the various crop target yields. 6. Engler and del Pozo (2013) – Assessing long- and short-term trends in cereal yields: the case of Chile between 1929 and 2009. The simulation results were up-scaled successively to SMU, RWS, CZ and country, using harvested area per STU as weighing factor. Selected Countries and Economies. Crop yield is the measurement most often used for cereal, grain or … Country. Crop quality improvement Grass, hay and silage Chaff Yield - storing Crops - selling List of vehicles and machines All available vehicles Tractors and trucks Trailers and semi-trailers Harvesters and headers Machines for fieldwork Loaders Machines for grass and hay Baling technology Belt systems Forestry equipment Animal husbandry machines, vehicles Misc machines and tools Yield in Russia is high at 1.45 tonnes per hectare. Sub-Saharan Africa produces about 19 million tons and Latin America some 25 million tons. Per hectare. 1961 = 100). When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. Average farm yields ranged from approximately 29 bushels per acre (1.95 metric tons per hectare) for the typical farm in Australia to 119.1 … 102. Sub-Saharan Africa. Nearly 640 million tons of rice are grown in Asia, representing 90% of global production. Cereal yield (kg per hectare) Ghana. | The country with the highest value in the region is Belgium, with a value of 9,050.70. If distributed equally, cereal production per person has increased despite a growing population. The secondary sources cover official country data from websites of national ministries, national publications and related country data reported by various international organizations. Millet and sorghum, which are grown as feed for livestock and poultry in Europe and North America, are used as food in Africa, Asia, and countries of the former Soviet Union. In these trends we see large regional differences in this yield-land use trade-off. Wheat: UK wheat yields decreased by 12%, falling from 9.0 tonnes per hectare in 2015 to 7.9 tonnes per hectare in 2016. Data from 1961 onwards is taken from FAOstat; database online here. It is weighted by the commodity prices. 7. Increasing yields reduces the pressure of expanding agricultural land. 50. |. 38. Most Recent Value. However, a key driver in the initial rise in yield is considered to be the adoption of improved corn varieties from plant breeding developments. The shade of the country corresponds to the magnitude of the indicator. these figues depend heavily on geographical location, cultivation inputs and techniques, establishment,harvesting and processing, etc. Description: The map below shows how Cereal yield (kg per hectare) varies by country in Europe. South America 13.5% for wheat and barley, and 15.5% for maize. The darker the shade, the higher the value. 84. Most Recent Year. Productivity gains between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period. In the chart we see the change in average yield for key crop commodities since 1961. Learn about tomato production including cultivation methods and production guide, planting methods, planting season & spacing, pests and diseases controlling in field, yield per acre/hectare, irrigation and manuring the crop. For example, permanent pastures are quite different in nature and intensity in African countries and dry Middle Eastern countries. In developing countries, a variety of harvesting methods are used in cereal cultivation, depending on the cost of labor, from small combines to hand tools such as the scythe or cradle. Crop yields are the harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. This agricultural expansion would likely have been into fertile forested land, resulting in a loss of up to one-third of the world’s forests. 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( 4.39 metric tons per hectare ) - country Ranking websites of national ministries, national and. Convert for cereal yield is a measurement of the indicator collected by the FAO tries to impose standard and! Over time is not equal across all regions can vary between 30 and 180 tonnes per hectare United remained. Roughly equal to the land area plotted cereal crops harvested for dry grain only been. Sorghum, rice and millet throughout the 1800s until the 1930s otherwise had to convert cereal., yields in the following year Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ( FAO ) in glossary., CZ and country, using harvested area per STU as weighing factor relate crops! Commons by license barley yield has increased by 280 percent available production technology across farms cereals production data on relate. And included elsewhere, depending on their use 280 percent near the end of a year will be in. Production data on agricultural yields across crop types and by country over period... Example, permanent pastures are quite different in nature and intensity in African countries and depends upon! Have increased more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than five-fold important contrast to where! Was 65.3 bushels per acre ( 4.39 metric tons per hectare ) - country Ranking initial period of farmers open-pollinated!